This OECD publication reviews the current state of education policies for children with special education needs and those with disabilities in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan. It offers an overview of the respective country backgrounds, education systems and relevant legislation, and takes a critical look at access to education for what is considered to be the most vulnerable group of children in the countries reviewed. Particular attention is paid to inclusive education policies, to the processes of identification and assessment, to overall policy co-ordination for the provision of education services, to integration in mainstream education, as well as to good practices and the role of NGOs and the donor community.
In line with its work to promote new strategies to reach children and young people with special educational needs within regular education and community-based programmes, UNESCO invited a number of practitioners to share successful experiences, projects, ets. in this domain. The stories reflect initiatives of different groups of practitioners - teachers, parents, specialists, and community people with a clear commitment to making a difference in the education of children and young people with special needs - people who are determined to make things happen. UNESCO's programme on Special Needs Education has put together these stories, hoping that they will be a source of inspiration, and a channel for exchange and networking with all those who want to promote education for all including chose with special educational needs.
Although the rise of constructivism calls conventional remedial and special education practices into question, it also represents a positive opportunity for progress and renewal in the professions and in society. Emphasizing the constructivist principles of voice, collaboration, and inclusion, the authors identify the influence of constructivism across three interrelated levels of reform: structural reforms in school organization, pedagogical reforms in classrooms, and institutional reforms in human service systems generally relative to the "school - linked services integration" movement. By doing so, the authors argue that, far more than a new special education service delivery model, inclusion is the emerging cultural logic of the 21st century. They conclude the article with a political-economic argument for inclusive education and a discussion of the implications of constructivist reform efforts for the broader possibility of democratic renewal in society.