This paper argues that inclusion is the major challenge facing educational systems around the world. Reflecting on evidence from a programme of research carried out over the last ten years, it provides a framework for determining levers that can help to ease systems in a more inclusive direction. The focus is on factors within schools that influence the development of thinking and practice, as well as wider contextual factors that may constrain such developments. It is argued that many of the barriers experienced by learners arise from existing ways of thinking. Consequently, strategies for developing inclusive practices have to involve interruptions to thinking, in order to encourage an exploration of overlooked possibilities for moving practice forward.
The purpose of this publication is to share these contributions and provide a comprehensive overview of the major issues, challenges and questions related to inclusive education. Benefiting from a rich diversity of fields, organizations and regions, these contributions encompass a broad range of perspectives and approaches. This publication is organized in four main sections, followed by a content analysis of the messages sent to the Conference by over 120 Ministers of Education worldwide, and concluded by an article on inclusive education as the core of the Education for All (EFA) agenda. The four sections focus on ICE sub-themes—approaches, scope and content; public policies; systems, links and transitions; and learners and teachers—and are introduced by relevant extracts from the reference document of the Conference.
The Dakar Framework for Action adopted a World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) in 2000, which established the goal to provide every girl and boy with primary school education by 2015. It also clearly identified Inclusive Education (IE) as a key strategy for the development of EFA. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action endorsed by 92 overnments and 25 international organizations at the World Conference on Special Needs Education, June 1994 in Salamanca, Spain proclaims that every child has unique haracteristics, interests, abilities, and learning needs and that “those with special education needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them with a child-centered pedagogy capable of meeting those needs.” The Salamanca Statement also asserts that educational systems that take into account the wide diversity of children’s haracteristics and needs “are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.
The report will present the perspective of people with intellectual disabilities and their families on living and being included in the community. We want to share our experiences of inclusion in the community, of exclusion and isolation from the community and the impact that these experiences have had on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities and their families.
This guide was developed on behalf of the INEE Task Team on Inclusive Education and Disability by Ingrid Lewis with Duncan Little and Helen Pinnock. The INEE Task Team on Inclusive Education and Disability works to promote the key principles, behaviours and actions necessary for ensuring that all excluded and marginalised people affected by crisis are included in education preparedness, response and recovery activities. For more information on INEE and the INEE Inclusive Education and Disability Task Team visit www.ineesite.org.
In today’s increasingly globalized world, with its rising disparities in income distribution, where 60 per cent of the world’s population live on only 6 per cent of the world’s income, half of the world’s population lives on two dollars a day and over 1 billion people live on less than one dollar a day, ‘poverty is a threat to peace’.4 Poverty and other factors contributing to exclusion seriously affect education. While progress is being made towards the Education for All (EFA) goals and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as demonstrated by the drop in numbers of out-of-school children and increasing enrolment rates, there is now a stronger focus on those learners who are still out of school or are hard to reach.5 More attention is also being paid to the many children and young people who attend school but who are excluded from learning, who may not complete the full cycle of primary education or who do not receive an education of good quality.
Early childhood is the period from prenatal development to eight years of age. It is a crucial phase of growth and development because experiences during early childhood can influence outcomes across the entire course of an individual’s life (1,2). For all children, early childhood provides an important window of opportunity to prepare the foundation for life-long learning and participation, while preventing potential delays in development and disabilities. For children who experience disability, it is a vital time to ensure access to interventions which can help them reach their full potential (1,3)
This Innocenti Insight looks at how children with disabilities and their families have fared in the rapidly changing environment of this region since transition in the early 1980’s. It builds upon the significant body of research and policy reflections accrued at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC) with the support of national statistical offices in the 27 countries of the region. UNICEF IRC has tracked and explored the impact on children and their families of economic and social changes in the region since transition began. This report draws upon three new pieces of research that include data, a qualitative survey and first-person interviews. The results highlight the legacies of the past, the momentum for change and areas where action is further needed. Institutionalisation, segregation and discrimination are still prominent features of the environment in which children with disabilities live across the region.
This report was prepared by a vast network of families, self advocates, friends and organizations all over the world. It reflects the reality of inclusive education and tells the story of an international movement.
Partnerships, Advocacy, and Communication for Social Change
The Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) at the OECD has since 1978 been a world leader in providing information to policy makers on the topic of including disabled students in mainstream schools. This book provides the most comprehensive and detailed account of inclusive policies and practices ever made in a comparative context, with the aim of providing information relevant to formulating appropriate policies in Member countries and elsewhere.