This paper argues that inclusion is the major challenge facing educational systems around the world. Reflecting on evidence from a programme of research carried out over the last ten years, it provides a framework for determining levers that can help to ease systems in a more inclusive direction. The focus is on factors within schools that influence the development of thinking and practice, as well as wider contextual factors that may constrain such developments. It is argued that many of the barriers experienced by learners arise from existing ways of thinking. Consequently, strategies for developing inclusive practices have to involve interruptions to thinking, in order to encourage an exploration of overlooked possibilities for moving practice forward.
The purpose of this publication is to share these contributions and provide a comprehensive overview of the major issues, challenges and questions related to inclusive education. Benefiting from a rich diversity of fields, organizations and regions, these contributions encompass a broad range of perspectives and approaches. This publication is organized in four main sections, followed by a content analysis of the messages sent to the Conference by over 120 Ministers of Education worldwide, and concluded by an article on inclusive education as the core of the Education for All (EFA) agenda. The four sections focus on ICE sub-themes—approaches, scope and content; public policies; systems, links and transitions; and learners and teachers—and are introduced by relevant extracts from the reference document of the Conference.
This Innocenti Insight looks at how children with disabilities and their families have fared in the rapidly changing environment of this region since transition in the early 1980’s. It builds upon the significant body of research and policy reflections accrued at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC) with the support of national statistical offices in the 27 countries of the region. UNICEF IRC has tracked and explored the impact on children and their families of economic and social changes in the region since transition began. This report draws upon three new pieces of research that include data, a qualitative survey and first-person interviews. The results highlight the legacies of the past, the momentum for change and areas where action is further needed. Institutionalisation, segregation and discrimination are still prominent features of the environment in which children with disabilities live across the region.
This report was prepared by a vast network of families, self advocates, friends and organizations all over the world. It reflects the reality of inclusive education and tells the story of an international movement.
Partnerships, Advocacy, and Communication for Social Change
The Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) at the OECD has since 1978 been a world leader in providing information to policy makers on the topic of including disabled students in mainstream schools. This book provides the most comprehensive and detailed account of inclusive policies and practices ever made in a comparative context, with the aim of providing information relevant to formulating appropriate policies in Member countries and elsewhere.
Within the framework of integration not children with special needs in mainstream schools from 1976 to a policy of inclusive education, the state special schools were from 1992 transformed into a system for special needs support. The transformation period was painful to a lot of personnel, but with emphasize on competence building in remaining staff, it was developed a resourceful and qualitatively good system of special needs support to the individual student where the local educational authorities could not cope with the specific needs themselves.
The world has a goal: universal primary education, the second of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), calls for all children to complete primary school. The right of children with disabilities to a high-quality education alongside their peers is also enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The question of how best to achieve this is more complicated. This paper explores how Leonard Cheshire Disability approaches this issue and how our projects support children with disabilities to get the education that they, and all children, deserve.
The education system in Malta has for many years given special focus to students with a disability. Educational programmes have developed so as to ensure that each and every student attending a school is provided with opportunities and challenges that stimulate the development of their potential.
USAID/Tanzania’s Education Assistance Objective (AO) is “Improved lower primary education for higher achievement in reading, mathematics, and science.” Two intermediate results (IRs) are incorporated in the results framework (RF) to support accomplishment of this objective:
• Strengthened professional development and resource support for schools to improve instruction in reading, mathematics, and science, and
• Strengthened policies, information, and management related to reading mathematics, and science instruction