Following the steps towards European Integration, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has adopted a number of laws and policies entitling all children to quality education and equal opportunities, with "all", referring not only to children with special needs but to other marginalized groups such as Roma children, returnees, children without parental care etc.
This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current developments in inclusive education together with and alongside powerful external change agents. This research focuses on policy makers’ perspectives on changes associated with inclusion. There are significant similarities in the way inclusive education reforms are being perceived and implemented in both countries, and analysis suggests there is a strong need for regional co-operation with shifts in both policy and practice.
This report focuses on the financing of special needs education and its relationship to inclusion policies and practices in 17 European countries.
The report was prepared during the autumn of 1999 and the descriptions and findings refer to the situation in countries until the end of 1998. During the project - which began in 1997 - a questionnaire was sent to all the Working Partners of the Agency member countries. These working partners submitted country reports concerning the two key topics: financing and inclusion. This synthesis report was written on the basis of these country reports.
In spite of existing legislation, children with disabilities often lack sufficient government and social support for their full integration into society. This also applies to education systems, where professionals and administrators are not always certain how to guarantee the right of children with disabilities to education or how to cater for their individual needs successfully and efficiently. In this regard, the committee supports the approaches of inclusive education as it guarantees the right to education for all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, emotional, cultural or other conditions.
Moreover, a diverse population of children and young people being educated in the same school is bound to create an increased degree of tolerance and will contribute to a growing acceptance of difference in society. Inclusive education should be the responsibility of all and must be seen as an important step towards the development of an inclusive society for all. It will only be achieved by partnerships, networking and joint learning by all stakeholders.
The Council of Europe Disability Action Plan as a reference document for all new policies and actions carried out in the area of disability. All member states should use it as a practical policy tool to help them in the implementation in Europe of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Committee of Ministers to member states on the Council of Europe Plan to promote the rights and full participation of people with disabilities in society: improving the quality of life of people with disabilities in Europe 2006-2015
The European Social Charter complements the European Convention on Human Rights in the field of economic and social rights. It sets out rights and fundamental freedoms and establishes a supervisory mechanism based on collective complaints and state reports, guaranteeing their respect by states parties. It was recently revised and the 1996 Revised European Social Charter is gradually replacing the initial 1961 Charter. The Charter guarantees a wide range of rights; rights relating to housing, health, education, employment, social protection, movement of persons and non-discrimination
Equality and non-discrimination; awareness, the media and social image; gender-sensitive accessibility; equal recognition before the law; violence against women; community living; sexual and reproductive rights; education; health; work and employment; cooperation and development.